Cooperation is an event in the public sphere in which two or more actors associate in order to advance a common interest.
Cooperation in the public sphere is a one-time joining of actors in order to advance a common interest that may result from sectoral goals the actors wish to promote. Cooperation focuses on current issues and does not require a collective vision or the involvement of the key actors in the public sphere. In addition, cooperation does not require that the actors share information.
Cooperation is necessary for a socio-economic leapfrog but is not sufficient. A leapfrog requires partnership, a continuous relationship between the key actors in the public sphere designed to fulfill collective socio-economic interests.